By Bernard / Vogel, Petra M. Comrie
The background of notice type examine is characterised by means of severe positions. as much as the nineteenth century, it was once believed that notice sessions have been normally of the Latin or Greek variety and common. unlike that, within the twentieth century, the view prevailed that each language had its personal particular and exact notice type procedure. within the final many years, in spite of the fact that, it has develop into obvious that regardless of the big variety of be aware periods and be aware category platforms there are typological regulations with reference to the conceptualization of semantic beneficial properties and morphosyntactic constructions. this article ways notice sessions and their categorial manifestations from the viewpoint of typology and language universals learn. The authors during this quantity speak about be aware classification categorization typically (Part I), in addition to be aware sessions and observe category platforms of person languages (Part II) from a typological-universal perspective and from diachronic and cross-linguistic views
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A dynamic model ofpart-of-speech differentiation 43 Hakulinen, Auli—Fred Karlsson 1979 Nykysuomen lauseoppia. ) Jyvaskyla: Suomalaisen Kirjallisuuden Seura. Hengeveld, Kees 1992 Non-verbal predication: Theory, typology, diachrony. ) Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter. Hengeveld, Kees—Jan Rijkhoff—Anna Siewierska 1997 "Part-of-speech system as a basic typological parameter", Paper presented at the Workshop on Word Classes, II. Annual Meeting of the Association for Linguistic Typology, Eugene, USA. —Sandra A.
For example, in the Salish language Lushootseed (Van Eijk—Hess 1986: 324), a main clause, such as (14a), can also, construed with an article, be used as term expression, as in (14b). (14) a. lSG '(s)he helps me' b. /; ART kwaxwa-c help:3SG-TRANSITI VE. 1SG 'the one who helps me' Example (14b) also illustrates the general point that a verb in term function, even though fairly verbal in its trimmings, may also assimilate to the dominant semantic category of the part of speech typically associated with that function, namely the Jan Anward category of nouns.
This means that each language must strike a balance between flexibility (recycling) and contrast (identification), and such balances tend to block complete recycling of all items. Hence, languages tend to have part-of-speech systems. Since there are several ways in which languages can strike a balance between flexibility and contrast, languages furthermore tend to have different part-of-speech systems. And, finally, since part-of-speech systems are the A dynamic model ofpart-of-speech differentiation 39 outcome of a particular balance of flexibility and contrast, and not of any particular process of part-of-speech learning, questions of design are beside the point.