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By A. Kasekamp

Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania were the battleground for neighbouring powers and the positioning of excessive contention, but additionally interplay, among East and West. A heritage of the Baltic States masterfully strains the advance of those 3 Baltic international locations, from the northern crusades opposed to Europe's final pagans, and Lithuania's upward push to develop into considered one of medieval Europe's largest
states, to their incorporation into the Russian Empire and the construction in their smooth nationwide identities.

Drawing upon the latest scholarship, Andres Kasekamp will pay specific cognizance to the tumultuous 20th century, within which the Baltic States completed independence, but additionally continued career through either the Soviet Union and Nazi Germany. eventually, he explores how the Baltic States recovered their statehood and remodeled themselves into contributors of the ecu Union. essentially and accessibly written, this can be one of many first English-language books to supply a comparative survey of Baltic background.

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Henry’s rule, however, lasted only a few months until he returned hastily to Prance to claim the Prench throne after his brother’s death. The Polish-Lithuanian throne was hotly contested, with neighbour­ ing European powers, such as the Austrian Habsburgs, putting forward their candidates. The next Polish king and Lithuanian grand duke, the Hungarian Stefan Batory, Prince of Transylvania, husband of Sigismund Augustus’s sister, possessed a martial spirit which was the opposite of that of the effeminate Henry.

1 Among those he welcomed were Jews. Ged­ iminas allowed Catholic priests into the country in order to minister to foreign merchants, but not to proselytise. Under Gediminas, Lithuania expanded further into the lands of Rus’, annexing most of the territory of present-day Belarus. Expansion also served the needs of the dynasty by providing territories for Gediminas’ plentiful kinsmen to rule over. 2 Lithuania was unusual in that it was a pagan realm which ruled over a majority Christian population.

1 Among those he welcomed were Jews. Ged­ iminas allowed Catholic priests into the country in order to minister to foreign merchants, but not to proselytise. Under Gediminas, Lithuania expanded further into the lands of Rus’, annexing most of the territory of present-day Belarus. Expansion also served the needs of the dynasty by providing territories for Gediminas’ plentiful kinsmen to rule over. 2 Lithuania was unusual in that it was a pagan realm which ruled over a majority Christian population.

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