By Stella A. Stiegeler BSc (eds.)
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Extra info for A Dictionary of Earth Sciences
Where they are found to the south of the true podzol zone. They fall into the *spodosol order of the Seventh Approximation. brucite. A white or greenish mineral with a layered structure and composition Mg(OHh- It commonly occurs as a hydration product of periclase in thermally metamorphosed dolomites. Bruckner Cycle. A climatic cycle of about 35 years, which was deduced by Bruckner in 1890 on the basis of noninstrumental data, such as harvests. He distinguished alternating warm and dry spells and cold and wet spells, but the cycle is not well defined and has too small an amplitude to have any forecasting value.
The existence of banks and channels close to the coast further complicates this simple zonation. breccia. A *rudaceous sedimentary rock in which the constituent clasts or fragments are angular. Compare conglomerate. brickearth. Fine-grained unconsolidated deposits (sand, silt, and clay) associated with periglacial conditions in the Pleistocene. There are two types of brickearth. Aeolian loess consists of very well sorted material of predominantly silt size, picked up from glacial outwash, frost-shattered debris, or the floodplains of rivers, and transported by cold dry winds in steppelike conditions.
Bankfull. The state of flow of a river immediately prior to flooding when the river's channel is full with water to its brim. 5 years. banner cloud. A stationary cloud that appears to be attached to an isolated mountain peak. It extends downwind from the peak for some distance and so resembles a flag or banner. The Matterhom is probably the best known summit with a frequent occurrence of this type of cloud. The origin of the cloud is due to the lifting of air in the eddy of the leeward side of the peak, though an aerodynamic pressure reduction may play some part in its formation.